IF Partial panel

Instrument Flying

Partial panel

Objectives

  • To know how to use partial panel for:
    • Straight and level flight.
    • Climbing.
    • Descending.
    • Standard rate turns.
    • Climbing and descending turns.
    • Timed turn.

Why ?

  • If a gyroscopic instrument is toppled, becomes unserviceable or the power sources for the instruments fails, you will have to continue the flight using partial panel.

Review

  • Gyroscopic Instruments may be powered by:
    • A vacuum/ pressure system
    • Electrically powered.
  • Typical training aircraft will have vacuum attitude and heading indicator and electric turn coordinator.
  • Vacuum failure (suction 0):
    • Attitude indicator tumble.
    • heading indicator spin (some of them have a red flag).

Partial panel instruments

  • The term partial panel refers to instrument flying while the attitude indicator and heading indicator are either not fitted on the panel or are unserviceable.
  • Pitch instruments – partial panel
    • Altimeter (ALT).
    • Airspeed indicator (ASI).
    • Vertical speed indicator (VSI).
  • Bank instruments – partial panel
    • Turn coordinator (TC).
    • Magnetic compass (M).
  • Power instruments – partial panel
    • Airspeed indicator (ASI).
    • Engine instruments.
    • Manifold pressure gauge (MP).
    • Tachometer (RPM).

Straight and level flight: full panel

  • Pitch:
    • Primary: Attitude indicator.
    • Secondary: Altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator.
  • Bank:
    • Primary: Attitude Indicator.
    • Secondary: Heading Indicator, Turn Coordinator.
  • Power:
    • Primary: Airspeed Indicator.
    • Secondary: Manifold pressure gauge, Tachometer.

Straight and level flight: partial panel

  • Pitch:
    • Primary: Altimeter.
    • Secondary: Vertical Speed Indicator.
  • Bank:
    • Primary: Turn Coordinator.
    • Secondary: Magnetic Compass.
  • Power:
    • Primary: Airspeed Indicator.
    • Secondary: Manifold pressure gauge, Tachometer.

Scan technique: Straight and Level flight partial panel

  • What information do I need ?
    • Pitch, speed, altitude, heading.
  • Which instrument give me the needed?
      • Turn Coordinator.
      • Altimeter.
      • Aispeed indicator.
  • Is the Information reliable ?
    • Confirm the reliability of the turn coordinator by referring to the magnetic compass.
    • Confirm the reliability of the altimeter by referring to the vertical speed indicator and the airspeed indicator.

Climb or descent straight, constant airspeed: full panel

  • Pitch:
    • Primary: Attitude Indicator, Airspeed Indicator.
    • Secondary: Vertical Speed Indicator.
  • Bank:
    • Primary: Attitude Indicator.
    • Secondary: Heading Indicator, Tunr Coordinator.
  • Power:
    • Primary: Tachometer.
    • Secondary: Airspeed Indicator.

Climb or descent straight, constant airspeed: partial panel

  • Pitch:
    • Primary: Airspeed Indicator.
    • Secondary: Altimeter, Vertical Speed Indicator.
  • Bank:
    • Primary: Turn Coordinator.
    • Secondary: Magnetic Compass.
  • Power:
    • Primary:
    • Secondary: Airspeed Indicator.

Scan technique: Climb or Descent constant airspeed partial panel

  • What information do I need ?
    • Pitch, speed, altitude, heading.
  • Which instrument give me the needed?
      • Altimeter.
      • Aispeed indicator.
  • Is the Information reliable ?
    • Confirm the reliability of the turn coordinator by referring to the magnetic compass.
    • Confirm the reliability of the airspeed indicator by referring to the altimeter and the vertical speed indicator.

Climb or Descent straight constant rate: full panel

  • Pitch:
    • Primary: Attitude Indicator.
    • Secondary: Vertical speed Indicator.
  • Bank:
    • Primary: Attitude indicator.
    • Secondary: Heading Indicator, Turn Coordinator.
  • Power:
    • Primary: Airspeed indicator.
    • Secondary: Tachometer.

Climb or Descent straight constant rate: partial panel

  • Pitch:
    • Primary: Vertical speed Indicator.
    • Secondary: Altimeter.
  • Bank:
    • Primary: Turn Coordinator.
    • Secondary: Magnetic Compass.
  • Power:
    • Primary: Airspeed indicator.
    • Secondary: Tachometer.

Scan technique: Climb or Descent Level off partial panel

  • What information do I need?
    • Heading, Altitude
  • Which instruments give me the needed information?
    • Turn coordinator.
    • Altimeter.
  • Is the information reliable?
    • Confirm the reliability of the Turn coordinator by referring to the Magnetic compass.
    • Confirm the reliability of the altimeter by referring to the vertical speed indicator and the airspeed indicator.

Timed turn partial panel

  • The compass, is useless during a turn—therefore we have to time standard-rate turns using the turn coordinator and a clock or watch.
  • Use the following method:
  • Find the number of degrees required to turn (left or right) to the prescribed heading and divide this number by 3—that is 3° per second.  Then begin the timed turn.
    • At rate one 360° will take 120 sec (360/3 = 120)
    • 180 ° = 60 sec
    • 90 ° = 30 sec
    • 30 ° – 10 sec
  • Step by step:
    • Be sure to in straight and level flight, check:
    • Airspeed indicator-stabilize
    • Turn coordinator-wing level.
    • Altimeter-stabilize.
    • Check compass for heading.
    • Calculate the time to turn at the heading desired.
    • Start clock and roll in.
    • Check turn coordinator for rate one.
    • At the end of the clock roll out and wing level.
    • Confirm wing level with TC, airspeed indicator, altimeter.
    • Check compass.

Scan technique: Timed turn partial panel

  • What information do I need ?
    • Time and altitude.
  • Which instrument give me the needed?
    • Clock or watch.
    • Altimeter.
    • Turn coordinator.
  • Is the Information reliable ?
    • Confirm the reliability of the turn coordinator by referring to the magnetic compass.
    • Confirm the reliability of the altimeter by referring to the vertical speed indicator and the Airspeed indicator.

Review questions

  • What is the scan technique for partial panel leveling off?
  • What is the scan technique for partial panel leveling off?
  • What is the scan technique for partial panel Climb or descent straight, constant airspeed ?
  • What is the scan technique for partial panel Timed turn?
  • What instrument will be affected if you lose suction (vacuum gauge 0) ?
  • What are the pitch, bank and power instruments in a partial panel ?