Crosswind landing

Crosswind Landing

Objectives

  •  To develop the pilot’s skill and knowledge with crosswind approach and landings.

Why?

  • As it is rare that the wind is blowing directly down the centerline of the runway, all pilots must be fully skilled in dealing with cross-wind approaches and landings.
  • Adverse wind conditions (crosswinds, tail winds and wind shear) are involved in 33 % of approach-and-landing accidents.

Link

  • Normal/short/soft landing.
  • Side slip

Review questions

  • What is the maximum demonstrated crosswind according to the POH?
  • What’s the procedure for entry and recovery from a side-slip?
  • What are the advantage of Flap extension during landings?
  • How do you maintain descent attitude and desired approach airspeed?

Headwind/crosswind calculations

  • Determine the angle between the runway and the wind direction.
  • METAR, TAF, FD:
    • winds are given in true direction
  • Runway orientation:
    • winds are given in magnetic direction.
Maximum Crosswind Component Limitation
  • Crosswind charts can be found in POH but are not aircraft specific.
  • The maximum allowable crosswind velocity is dependent upon the pilot capability as well as aircraft limitation.
  • When calculating the crosswind always use the full gust component meaning, calculate crosswind as a « worst case » scenario.

Crosswind Landing Method 1: Crab

  • Point the nose into the wind and maintain wings level (crab for drift correction).
  • Crab angle is maintained until just prior to touchdown.
  • Longitudinal Axis must remain parralel to the flight path
  • Just before the wheels contact the ground, stop the drift so that the wheels are aligned with the runway.
  • You may use the crab method until just before the roundout is started and then smoothly changing to the wing low (side slip method) for the remainder of the landing.
  • use the rudder to align the nose with the runway.

Crosswind Landing Method 2: Side slip

  • Aligns the airplane’s heading with the centerline of the runway.
  • Applies drift correction by lowering the upwind wing.
  • simultaneously apply sufficient opposite rudder pressure to prevent the turn and keep the airplane’s longitudinal axis aligned with the runway.
    • Drift is controlled with aileron.
    • Heading is controlled with rudder.
    • If the crosswind diminishes, correction must be reduced.
  • Flare :
  • Hold upwind wing down
  • Maintain track down runway with opposite rudder.
  • Touchdown :
    • On upwind main wheel first, followed by downwind main wheel.
    • Keep straight with rudder and hold full aileron into the wind.
    • Gently lower the nose wheel to the runway.
  • Use brake to stop.

Review questions

  • What are the two basic methods used for crosswind landing?
  • Which wheel should touchdown first?
  • What do we do after touchdown during a crosswind landing?